There are two main types of verbs: derived verbs, and root verbs. Both Sindarin and Quenya have them, and they have the same relations. If you go back to Common Eldarin, you'll see the basis of this. These two are:
The Aorist is sometimes referred to as "present tense", but that's not 100% accurate. The Aorist is for timeless truths and habitual actions. But, we don't have (yet) any descriptions of Sindarin present tenses that aren't the Aorist, so this is what we have to work with. Thus, sentences like "he runs" and "he is running" you'll have to treat all the same.
Present tense for A-verbs is straightforward. It's just the verb root plus the pronominal suffixes. Here's the chart of nominative suffixes.
|First person exclusive||-(o)n||I||-(o)f||we (not you)|
|First person inclusive||-nc||you and I||-b||we and you|
|Informal second person||-(o)g||you (informal)||-|
|Formal second person||-(o)l||you (formal)||-(o)dh||y'all|
|Third person||No suffix||he/she/it or a singular noun||-r||they or a plural noun|
If the suffix has an (o) before it, the -A will be replaced with an O, then the suffix added.
- Gosta- fear
- Goston I fear
- Gosta It/she/he fears
The present tense for I-verbs is a little more difficult. Because an -i- is inserted between the pronoun suffix and the verb root, I-Affection of the root takes place.
The third person singular is different. If the root of the I-verb is one syllable long, add a circumflex accent to the vowel. If it is more than one syllable long, none of the vowels are lengthened.
If the root ends with an F, then the F becomes a V because an F at the end of a word sounds like a V.
- Laf- lick
- Levin I lick
- Lâf it/she/he licks
- Osgar- amputate
- Esgerin I amputate
- Osgar it/she/he amputates
Transitive verbs have two nouns attached to them: the one performing the verb (the subject) and the one the verb is acting on (the direct object).
First the subject, then the verb, then the direct object, which undergoes lenition.
Hadhod mâd lim. - A dwarf eats fish.
Īg nastar dail. - Thorns stab feet.
If the direct object is an adjective, mutate it just like you would a noun.
I 'wend *ôl chall. - The maiden is becoming tall.
Reinor thia nimp. - Reinor seems pale.
An intransitive verb isn't being done to anything; it only has a do-er. In other words, it does not use a direct object.
Therefore, these sentences have the laxest sentence structure in Sindarin. The subject can precede or follow the verb.
Tôl torog! - A troll comes!
Lothuial padra. - Lothuial walks.
In Sindarin, nouns and pronouns have different sets of rules.
As you know, nominative pronouns are suffixes on the verbs. Well, pronouns that are the direct objects of verbs are also different. They go before the verb, causing nasal mutation because accusative pronouns (pronouns that are the direct object) end in N. The accusative pronoun also undergoes lenition. Because of this, if it's an all-pronoun sentence, it'll end up with the word order reversed compared to sentences with regular nouns in them.
Here are some pronouns that can be acted upon. Remember to mutate them when putting them into a sentence.
|First person exclusive||nin me||men us (not you)|
|First person inclusive||*gwen you and us|
|Informal second person||*cin you (informal)||-|
|Formal second person||len you (formal)||den y'all|
|Third person||ten him/her/it||*tin them|
|Near Demonstrative||*sen this||*sin these|
|Far Demonstrative||san that||sain those|
I roch ni lâf. - The horse licks me.
Gin anglennon. - I approach you.