Aorist Tense

A-verbs and I-verbs and pronominal suffixes, and transitive/intransitive verb syntax

There are two main types of verbs: derived verbs, and root verbs. Both Sindarin and Quenya have them, and they have the same relations. If you go back to Common Eldarin, you'll see the basis of this. These two are:

  1. Root verbs are verbs which are a stem with nothing suffixed onto them. In Sindarin these are commonly known as I-verbs because in the infinitive they have an -i added to them.
  2. Derived verbs are a stem plus another element to modify the meaning of the stem slightly. There are several of these additions: -a, -ia, -ta, -ra, and -na. Because of this, they are often called A-verbs.

The Aorist is sometimes referred to as "present tense", but that's not 100% accurate. The Aorist is for timeless truths and habitual actions. But, we don't have (yet) any descriptions of Sindarin present tenses that aren't the Aorist, so this is what we have to work with. Thus, sentences like "he runs" and "he is running" you'll have to treat all the same.

Present tense for A-verbs is straightforward. It's just the verb root plus the pronominal suffixes. Here's the chart of nominative suffixes.

First person exclusive-(o)nI-(o)fwe (not you)
First person inclusive-ncyou and I-bwe and you
Informal second person-(o)gyou (informal)-
Formal second person-(o)lyou (formal)-(o)dhy'all
Third personNo suffixhe/she/it or a singular noun-rthey or a plural noun

If the suffix has an (o) before it, the -A will be replaced with an O, then the suffix added.

Gosta- fear
Goston I fear
Gosta It/she/he fears

The present tense for I-verbs is a little more difficult. Because an -i- is inserted between the pronoun suffix and the verb root, I-Affection of the root takes place.

The third person singular is different. If the root of the I-verb is one syllable long, add a circumflex accent to the vowel. If it is more than one syllable long, none of the vowels are lengthened.

If the root ends with an F, then the F becomes a V because an F at the end of a word sounds like a V.

Laf- lick
Levin I lick
Lâf it/she/he licks
Osgar- amputate
Esgerin I amputate
Osgar it/she/he amputates

Transitive Verbs with Nouns

Transitive verbs have two nouns attached to them: the one performing the verb (the subject) and the one the verb is acting on (the direct object).

First the subject, then the verb, then the direct object, which undergoes lenition.

Hadhod mâd lim. - A dwarf eats fish.
Īg nastar dail. - Thorns stab feet.

If the direct object is an adjective, mutate it just like you would a noun.

I 'wend *ôl chall. - The maiden is becoming tall.
Reinor thia nimp. - Reinor seems pale.

Intransitive Verbs with Nouns

An intransitive verb isn't being done to anything; it only has a do-er. In other words, it does not use a direct object.

Therefore, these sentences have the laxest sentence structure in Sindarin. The subject can precede or follow the verb.

Tôl torog! - A troll comes!
Lothuial padra. - Lothuial walks.

Transitive Verbs with Pronouns

In Sindarin, nouns and pronouns have different sets of rules.

As you know, nominative pronouns are suffixes on the verbs. Well, pronouns that are the direct objects of verbs are also different. They go before the verb, causing nasal mutation because accusative pronouns (pronouns that are the direct object) end in N. The accusative pronoun also undergoes lenition. Because of this, if it's an all-pronoun sentence, it'll end up with the word order reversed compared to sentences with regular nouns in them.

Here are some pronouns that can be acted upon. Remember to mutate them when putting them into a sentence.

First person exclusivenin memen us (not you)
First person inclusive*gwen you and us
Informal second person*cin you (informal)-
Formal second personlen you (formal)den y'all
Third personten him/her/it*tin them
Near Demonstrative*sen this*sin these
Far Demonstrativesan thatsain those
Interrogativeman what/who
I roch ni lâf. - The horse licks me.
Gin anglennon. - I approach you.

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