Future Tense

ava-, tol-, nidh-, and -atha

In English, there are two ways of making the future tense. "I will laugh," and "I'm going to laugh." Sindarin, on the other hand, doesn't have a pure future tense. When saying that something will happen, you use the simple present. So, instead of "It will happen" you'd say "It happens." But there are forms that have future connotations.

Tol-

The most commonly used is the verb tol-, which means "to come." It makes a compound predicate with a gerund, it means that the action is approaching in time and space.

The examples that have been revealed have a strange conjugation that may be a present progressive, so we'll use it as part of a formula. We aren't sure what other conjugations would be like. The verb root we have is tole- with a presumed 3rd person singular conjugation of tôl.

Tolen daged yrch. - I'm going to kill orcs.

This would be something that you say while in the midst of approaching the location where you will do the orc-killing.

Telin daged yrch. - I will go to kill orcs.

This would be something you say before you've left.

Nidh-

The verb nidh- is also commonly used. It means "to intend to." As with tol-, it makes a compound predicate.

Nidhin daged yrch. - I intend to kill orcs.

-Atha

The suffix -atha is used for "please" usually in question/answer scenarios, but you can use it to describe an action that the speaker is agreeable towards and will willingly do. It means "to consent to, to agree to, to be willing to." It can be used on its own as a shorthand, "Would you please?" - "Yes I will."

To use it, suffix -atha to the root of the verb, then add the pronoun suffix, and treat it like an A-verb.

Don't combine this suffix with negation.

Linnathog? - Are you willing to sing?
Linnathon. - I am willing to sing.
Dagathodh yrch? - Do you agree to kill orcs?
Dagathof yrch. - We agree to kill orcs.
Athog? - Please?
Athon. - Yes, I will.

Ava-

Ava- is the semantic opposite of Atha. While Atha marks consent, Ava marks refusal. They both have a future connotation as well. That's why Avon is usually translated as "I will not." So, if a question is asked with Atha and the speaker doesn't want to do it, they'd respond with Ava.

Like many of the forms above, it makes a compound predicate. But, you can drop the second verb for a more curt responce.

Linnathog? - Are you willing to sing?
Avon linnad. - I refuse to sing.
Dagathodh yrch? - Do you agree to kill orcs?
Avof daged yrch. - We refuse to kill orcs.
Athog? - Please?
Avon. - No, I won't.

Link to quiz

Index