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Articles by Paul Strack

New Series: Sindarin Grammar

Now that I’ve wrapped up Quenya Grammar (for now), I’m starting a new series on Sindarin. Like the Quenya series, this information will eventually be collected in Eldamo: https://eldamo.org/content/grammar-indexes/grammars-s.html The series will be similar to the Quenya one, in that I intend to examine both the Sindarin of the 1950s

Quenya Grammar P93: Numerals

Tolkien wrote a series of essays on Elvish numbers in the late 1960s. One of those essays, Eldarinwe Leperi are Notessi (ELN), gave a set of numbers that many Neo-Quenya writers now use (VT48/6): er or min “one”. atta “two”. nelde “three”. canta “four”. lempe “five” ¹. enque “six”. otso

Quenya Grammar P92: Prepositions

Like most head-initial languages, Quenya uses prepositions to express various relationships between words: i falmalinnar imbe met “on the foaming waves between us” (LotR/377), or ilye mahalmar “above all thrones” (UT/305), ve maiwi yaimie “like gulls wailing” (MC/222). The preposition appears at the beginning of the expression, followed by the

Quenya Grammar P90: Comparison

In Tolkien’s later writing, Quenya did not have a direct equivalent of English’s comparative “-er” suffix. In linguistic notes from 1966-67, Tolkien said that “A is brighter than B” is expressed using the preposition lá “beyond”: A (ná) calima lá B (PE17/90), where the copula ná- “to be” is optional