9.34 to Strew, Spread Out ᴹQ. kapta- v. “to make spring, scatter; [ᴱQ.] to startle, ⚠️leap” A verb appearing in the initial drafts of Outline of Phonetic Development (OP1) for the 1930s as ᴹQ. kapta- “make spring, scatter”, a combination of ᴹ√KAP “leap” with the causative suffix ᴹ✶-tā so more
9.33 to Draw, Pull ᴱQ. luk- v. “to haul, drag, [ᴱQ.] pull (behind)” A verb appearing as ᴱQ. luk- “pull” in Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s (PE16/134). A set of what appears to be past forms (lunke, ulunke, ulunket, unlunke) appeared in various versions of an untranslated sentence in
9.31 to Rub Q. †psar- v. “to rub, [ᴹQ.] fret” A verb for “rub” mentioned in the second version of Tengwesta Qenderinwa (TQ2) from around 1950 (PE18/94). It is also mentioned in the Quenya Verbal System of 1948 as the basis for the frequentative verb ᴹQ. sapsarra- “keep on rubbing,
9.28 to Tear ᴱQ. ripta- v. “to cut in strips, tear up; to stripe, mark in parallel lines; to flay, flog” A verb appearing as ᴱQ. ripta- with glosses “to cut in strips, tear up — stripe, mark in parallel lines — flay, flog” in the Qenya Lexicon of the
9.27 to Split ᴹQ. hyar- v. “to cleave; [ᴱQ.] to plough” A verb appearing as hyarin “I cleave” in The Etymologies of the 1930s as a derivative of from the root ᴹ√SYAD “shear through, cleave” (Ety/SYAD). In the Outline of Phonetic Development (OP1) from around this time, Tolkien had an
9.26 to Break ᴹQ. askat- v. “to rend, break asunder” The verb ᴹQ. terhat- “break apart” appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s, a combination of ᴹQ. ter “through” with the root ᴹ√SKAT “break asunder” (Ety/SKAT). Its past form terhante “broke” appeared in earlier versions of the Lament of Atalante
9.23: Knife (tool) Q. cirma n. “knife” A word for “knife” attested only as an element in cirmacin “knife-edge” in Late Notes on Verb Structure (LVS) from 1969 (PE22/149). This “knife” word is probably a combination of √KIR “cut” with the instrumental suffix ✶-mā, so more literally a “cut-tool”. Q.
9.22 to Cut Q. aucir- v. “to cut off (and get rid of or lose a portion)” A verb in the Quendi and Eldar essay from 1959-60 translated “cut off so that a portion is lost or no longer available” (WJ/365) and “cut off and get rid of or lose
9.21 to Hit, Strike, Beat ᴱQ. hyalta- v. “to strike, make ring” A verb appearing as ᴱQ. hyalta- “to strike, make ring” in Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s (PE16/144), possibly related to the 1930s root ᴹ√SYAL having to do with sea shells if the underlying meaning was resonant sounds
9.19 Rope, Cord ᴱQ. hempa n. “cord” A noun appearing as ᴱQ. hempa “cord” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s under the early root ᴱ√HEPE “bind” (QL/40). Neo-Sindarin: In Tolkien’s later writings √KHEP meant “keep”, but I think it could still be the basis for ᴺQ. hempa “cord”. Q.