9.27 to Split ᴹQ. hyar- v. “to cleave; [ᴱQ.] to plough” A verb appearing as hyarin “I cleave” in The Etymologies of the 1930s as a derivative of from the root ᴹ√SYAD “shear through, cleave” (Ety/SYAD). In the Outline of Phonetic Development (OP1) from around this time, Tolkien had an
9.26 to Break ᴹQ. askat- v. “to rend, break asunder” The verb ᴹQ. terhat- “break apart” appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s, a combination of ᴹQ. ter “through” with the root ᴹ√SKAT “break asunder” (Ety/SKAT). Its past form terhante “broke” appeared in earlier versions of the Lament of Atalante
9.23: Knife (tool) Q. cirma n. “knife” A word for “knife” attested only as an element in cirmacin “knife-edge” in Late Notes on Verb Structure (LVS) from 1969 (PE22/149). This “knife” word is probably a combination of √KIR “cut” with the instrumental suffix ✶-mā, so more literally a “cut-tool”. Q.
9.22 to Cut Q. aucir- v. “to cut off (and get rid of or lose a portion)” A verb in the Quendi and Eldar essay from 1959-60 translated “cut off so that a portion is lost or no longer available” (WJ/365) and “cut off and get rid of or lose
9.21 to Hit, Strike, Beat ᴱQ. hyalta- v. “to strike, make ring” A verb appearing as ᴱQ. hyalta- “to strike, make ring” in Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s (PE16/144), possibly related to the 1930s root ᴹ√SYAL having to do with sea shells if the underlying meaning was resonant sounds
9.19 Rope, Cord ᴱQ. hempa n. “cord” A noun appearing as ᴱQ. hempa “cord” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s under the early root ᴱ√HEPE “bind” (QL/40). Neo-Sindarin: In Tolkien’s later writings √KHEP meant “keep”, but I think it could still be the basis for ᴺQ. hempa “cord”. Q.
9.17 Bond Q. naxa n. “bond, fetter” A word for “bond, fetter” in green-ink revisions from around 1970 to the Outline of Phonology (OP2), based on the root √NASAG and related to Black Speech nazg “ring” (PE19/101). ᴹQ. núte n. “bond, knot” A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s
9.16 to Bind ᴱQ. hepe- v. “to bind” A word appearing as ᴱQ. hepin “I bind” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s and as hepe- “bind” in the contemporaneous Poetic and Mythological Words of Eldarissa of the 1910s, derived from the early root ᴱ√HEPE of the same meaning (QL/40).
9.14 to Bend Q. cúna adj. “bent, curved” An adjective for “bent, curved” in notes associated with the Markirya poem of the 1960s, related to the verb Q. kúna- to bend (MC/223). Q. cúna- v. “to bend” A verb for “to bend” based on the adjective Q. kúna “bend, curve”
9.12 Work, Labor Q. mólë n. “labour, *work” A form appearing as mōle after the verb mol- “labour” in notes on “large & small” words, probably from the late 1960s (PE17/115). The section where these words appeared was deleted. The form mōle might be a noun, or might be the