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Select Elvish Words 3.21-3.24: Bull, Cow, Calf

3.21 Bull

Q. mundo n. “bull, ox”
A word for “bull” in a 1972 letter to Meriel Thurston (Let/422). A similar form mondo appeared as an element in the name Q. Mondósar “Oxford” from a 1968 letter (DTS/70). See S. mund for other possible conceptual precursors.
S. mund n. “bull”
An Elvish word for “bull” in a 1972 letter to Meriel Thurston appearing as an element in various names such as Aramund “Noble Bull” (Let/423). Given its lack of final vowel, this is likely the Sindarin equivalent of Q. mundo “bull” appearing in another letter to Mrs. Thurston from early in the same year (Let/422).

Conceptual Development: The similar word G. “ox” appeared in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s serving as the basis for various cow-related words (GL/58).

3.23 Cow

ᴱQ. yaksi n. “cow”
The noun ᴱQ. yaksi “cow” appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s as a derivative of the early root ᴱ√Ẏak “a head of cattle” (QL/105). The contemporaneous Gnomish Lexicon also had ᴱQ. yaksi, but this form was deleted and ᴱQ. yakse was given as the cognate of G. gach “milch cow” (GL/36).

Conceptual Development: In Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s, the word for “cow” was ᴱQ. mui, likely related to G. mûs “cow” with a deleted variant {mui} as suggested by Patrick Wynne and Christopher Gilson (PE16/132).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I would adapt this word as ᴺQ. yaxë from the Neo-Root ᴺ√GYAK; Helge Fauskanger used this word for “cow” in his Neo-Quenya New Testament (NQNT).

G. gach n. “milch cow”
A noun in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s appearing as {gacha “cow” >>} G. gach “a milch cow”, cognate to ᴱQ. yakse of the same meaning (GL/36), which was derived from the early root ᴱ√Ẏak “a head of cattle” (QL/105).

Neo-Sindarin: I would retain this word in Neo-Sindarin as ᴺS. gach “cow” (< *gyaksē) based on the Neo-Root ᴺ√GYAK, with the sound changes (a) gy- > g- and (b) ks > ch.

G. mûst n. “byre, cowhouse”
A word appearing as G. mûst “byre, cowhouse” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s, a combination of G. “ox” and ost “enclosure” (GL/58). Tolkien wrote ŭ in parenthesis after this word, perhaps indicating the proper form should be mŭst; a long vowel before a cluster like st is very peculiar.

Neo-Sindarin: I would adapt this word as ᴺS. munnost, using the later word S. mund as its initial element.

3.24 Calf

G. mugli n. “calf”
A word appearing as G. mugli “calf” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s, apparently some kind of diminutive form of G. “ox” (GL/58).

Neo-Sindarin: For Neo-Sindarin I would adapt this word as ᴺS. munneg, a diminutive of later S. mund “bull”.

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