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Select Elvish Words 3.32: Boar, Pig, Goat

3.32 Boar

ᴱQ. karkapolka n. “boar, *(lit.) tusk-pig”
The word ᴱQ. karkapolka “boar” appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s as a combination of ᴱQ. karka “fang, tooth, tusk” and ᴱQ. polka “pig” (QL/48), hence literally “*tusk pig”.

Conceptual Development: The word for “boar” in the Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s was ᴱQ. úro (PE16/132), but its derivation is unclear.

Neo-Quenya: I’d use ᴺQ. carcapolca for “boar” in Neo-Quenya, as its etymology is more transparent.

3.35 Pig

ᴱQ. polka n. “pig”
The word ᴱQ. polka “pig” appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, under the early root ᴱ√POLO “have strength”, but Tolkien marked it with a “?” (QL/75). However, it appeared elsewhere as an element in ᴱQ. karkapolka “boar” = “*tusk pig” (QL/48).

Neo-Quenya: I’d retain this word as ᴺQ. polca for purposes of Neo-Quenya, since √POL survived in Tolkien’s later writings.

G. hunc n. “pig”
A noun appearing as G. hunc “pig” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s of unclear derivation (GL/49).

Neo-Sindarin: I’d retain this word as ᴺS. hunc for purposes of Neo-Sindarin as there are no good alternatives.

3.36 Goat

ᴱQ. nyé n. “bleat, cry of goat or sheep”
The word ᴱQ. nyé “bleat, cry of goat or sheep” appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s as a derivative of the early root ᴱ√NYE(NE) “bleat” (QL/68). This root was connected to ᴱ√NYEHE “weep” which was the basis for words like ᴱQ. nie “tear”.

Neo-Quenya: The word ᴹQ. nie “tear” reappeared in Tolkien’s later writings as a derivative of ᴹ√NEY, and I think ᴺQ. nyé “bleat” might be retained in Neo-Quenya as an onomatopoeic form, possibly related to this root.

ᴱQ. nyéni n. “she-goat”
The word ᴱQ. nyēni “she-goat” appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s as a feminized form of ᴱQ. nyé “bleat” (QL/68). It also appeared in the Poetic and Mythological Words of Eldarissa (PME/68).

Neo-Quenya: I’d retain ᴺQ. nyéni for “(she) goat” for purposes of Neo-Quenya; see ᴺQ. nyé “bleat” for the rationale, and ᴺQ. naico “goat” for possible alternatives.

ᴹQ. yat (yak-) n. “goat”
The word ᴹQ. yat (yak-) “goat” appeared in the Declension of Nouns from the early 1930s (PE21/24).

Conceptual Development: In the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s and Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s, ᴱQ. yakko was “ox” (QL/105; PE16/132). In Common Eldarin: Noun Structure of the early 1950s, Tolkien gave the possibly-related primitive form ✶najak- for “goat”, with masculine and feminine variants ✶najakō “he-goat” and ✶naikē “she-goat” (PE21/82).

Neo-Quenya: Helge Fauskanger used ᴺQ. naico for (male?) “goat” in his Neo-Quenya New Testament (NQNT) as a derivative of ✶najakō, and I would recommend this over ᴹQ. yat for this purpose. However, I’d recommend ᴺQ. nyéni for a female goat (adapted from ᴱQ. nyéni) since it (a) is more distinctive than *naice and (b) does not conflict with ᴹQ. naike “sharp pain”; Helge Fauskanger used nyéni in NQNT as well.

ᴺS. naeag n. “goat”
A neologism for “goat” coined by Gábor Lőrinczi appearing in VinQuettaParma Wiki (VQP), derived from primitive ✶najak- “goat” (PE21/82).

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