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Select Elvish Words 3.71: Wolf

3.71 Wolf

ᴹQ. húna- n. “to howl”
The deleted verb ᴹQ. hūna- “howl” appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s under the deleted root ᴹ√ÑO, replacing ñōna- “groan” (EtyAC/ÑŌ²).

Neo-Quenya: Since the root ᴹ√ÑO seems to have become √ÑGAW “howl”, I would revise this verb to ᴺQ. nauna- for purposes of Neo-Quenya.

ᴹQ. narmo n. “wolf”
A noun for “wolf” in The Etymologies of the 1930s derived from the root ᴹ√ÑGARAM (Ety/ÑGAR(A)M), apparently a variant of ᴹ√ÑGAW “howl”. It seems narmo is a word for an ordinary wolf, as opposed to nauro “werewolf”.

Conceptual Development: A similar (but rejected) form ᴹQ. harma “wolf” appeared under the deleted root ᴹ√ƷARAM (Ety/ƷARAM).

Q. nauro n. “werewolf, wolf (not wild wolves)”
A noun for “werewolf” appearing a number of times in Tolkien’s notes as a derivative of the root √ÑG(W)AW (PE17/39; PE19/106; Ety/ÑGAW). In the Outline of Phonology (OP2) from the 1950s Tolkien said it was “usually not used of ‘wild wolves’, and in TQ [Tarquesta] specially applied to the ‘werewolves’ of Morgoth” (PE19/106). In notes on Words, Phrases and Passages from The Lord of the Rings from the late 1950s or early 1960s, Tolkien instead said it was a loan-word from S. gaur (PE17/39). Tolkien vacillated on the meaning of its root, in some places giving it the gloss “howl” (PE19/106; Ety/ÑGAW) but in one place “falsify, deform, disguise” (PE17/39).
Q. nwámë n. “wolvish howling”
A word for “wolvish howling” the Outline of Phonology from the 1950s derived from primitive ✶ñgwaumē based on the root √ÑGWAW “howl” and illustrating how ancient wau would dissimilate to or au (PE19/106).

Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies of the 1930s Tolkien had ᴹQ. naule “wolfhowl” derived from the root ᴹ√ÑGAW “howl” (Ety/ÑGAW). This seems to have replaced ᴹQ. hu “howl” {<< ᴹQ. ñōn “growl, groan”} from the deleted root ᴹ√ÑO(NO).

Neo-Quenya: In theory nwáme and naule “howl” might coexist, but I think it best to stick to later nwáme.

ᴹQ. ráca n. “wolf”
A noun for “wolf” in The Etymologies of the 1930s derived from primitive ᴹ✶d’rāk under the root ᴹ√DARAK (Ety/DARÁK), where the ancient initial dr became r as usual for Quenya (PE19/37).

Conceptual Development: Earlier words for “wolf” of similar form include ᴱQ. ulku and feminine ᴱQ. ulqi “she-wolf” appearing in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s under the early root ᴱ√ULUKU (QL/97)

S. baw n. “howling”
A word for “howling” the Outline of Phonology from the 1950s derived from primitive ✶ñgwaumē based on the root √ÑGWAW “howl” (PE19/106-107).

Neo-Sindarin: N. gaul “wolfhowl” is more distinct in form and part of a larger confluence of “howling” words.

S. draug n. “wolf”
A noun for “wolf”, most notably appearing as an element in the name of the great werewolf S. Draugluin. In The Etymologies of the 1930s, N. draug “wolf” was derived from the root ᴹ√DARAK (Ety/DARÁK).
N. garaf n. “wolf”
A noun for “wolf” in The Etymologies of the 1930s derived from the root ᴹ√ÑGARAM (Ety/ÑGAR(A)M).

Conceptual Development: This word seems to have replaced N. araf or aram derived from the rejected root ᴹ√ƷARAM with various glosses like “wolf” or (small or swift) “dog” (Ety/ƷARAM; EtyAC/ƷARAM). This in turn may be a later iteration of G. harog or harw “wolf” from the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s with feminine variant G. harach “a she-wolf” (GL/48).

N. gaul n. “wolfhowl”
A noun for “wolfhowl” from The Etymologies of the 1930s, derived from the root ᴹ√ÑGAW “howl” (Ety/ÑGAW).

Conceptual Development: This seems to have replaced N. ûn “howl” {<< “groan”} from the deleted root ᴹ√ÑO(NO).

S. gaur n. “werewolf”
A noun for a “werewolf” (PE17/39; PE19/107; SA/gaur; Ety/ÑGAW), as opposed to a more ordinary wolf which would be [N.] garaf or draug. In The Etymologies of the 1930s, N. gaur was derived from the root ᴹ√ÑGAW “howl” (Ety/ÑGAW), and a similar derivation appeared in the Outline of Phonology (OP2) from the 1950s (PE19/106-107), but in notes on Words, Phrases and Passages from The Lord of the Rings from the late 1950s or early 1960s, Tolkien said the meaning of its root was “falsify, deform, disguise” (PE17/39).
N. gaw- n. “to howl”
A verb in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “howl” derived from the root ᴹ√ÑGAW of the same meaning (Ety/ÑGAW).

Conceptual Development: This might be a later iteration of G. gab- “bark, bay of dogs” from the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/36), which was probably derived from the early root ᴱ√YAPA “snarl, snap, bark ill-temperedly” since initial y usually became g in Gnomish.

N. gawad n. “howling”
A word for “howling” in The Etymologies of the 1930s, the noun (gerund) form of N. gaw- “to howl” (Ety/ÑGAW).

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