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Select Elvish Words 4.52-4.54: Yawn, Cough, Sneeze

4.52 to Gape, Yawn

Q. hac- v. “to yawn”
A verb implied by the active participle hákala “yawning” from the Markirya poem of the 1960s (MC/222). The verb form is often assumed to be háca-, but if this adjective is in fact a present active participle (= “is currently yawning”), then the verb may be hac- instead.
Q. hácala adj. “yawning”
An adjective for “yawning” appearing in the Markirya poem of the 1960s, probably a (present?) active participle of an otherwise unattested verb hac- or háca- “yawn” (MC/222).

Conceptual Development: In the version of the Markirya poem from around 1930, Tolkien used ᴱQ. yáme “yawning” (MC/214), replacing yape from the drafts of the poem (PE16/81).

ᴹQ. yanga- vb. “to yawn”
A verb in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “to yawn” derived from the root ᴹ√YAG “yawn, gape” (Ety/YAG).

4.53 to Cough

ᴱQ. hototyosse n. “a cough and a sneeze”
A noun appearing as ᴱQ. hototyosse “a cough and a sneeze” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, a combination of ᴱ√HOTYO “sneeze” and ᴱQ. tyos (tyoss-) “cough” (QL/41).

Neo-Quenya: Since I retain these elements for purposes of Neo-Quenya, I’d retain the compound form ᴺQ. hototyossë as well.

ᴱQ. hyukso n. “hiccup”
A word appearing as ᴱQ. hyukso “hiccup” in Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s of unclear etymology (PE16/144). The word might be onomatopoeic.

Neo-Quenya: I‘d retain this word as ᴺQ. hyuxo “hiccup” for purposes of Neo-Quenya.

ᴱQ. nungwe n. “cold (in the nose or head)”
This word appeared as ᴱQ. nungo “a cold in head” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s derived from ᴱ✶nṇg·ẇǝ under the early root ᴱ√NṆGṆ “have a cold” (QL/66), where the syllabic became un [uŋ] before the primitive labial w. In Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s, the word became ᴱQ. nungwe “cold in the nose” (PE16/145), probably of similar origin.

Neo-Quenya: I’d retain ᴺQ. nungwë “cold (in the nose or head)” for purposes of Neo-Quenya as a variant of ᴹQ. nengwe “nose” with the back-vowel u representing congestion in the nose.

ᴱQ. tyos (tyoss-) n. “cough”
A word appearing as ᴱQ. tyos (tyoss-) “a cough” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s derived from the early root ᴱ√TYOSO of the same meaning (QL/50).

Neo-Quenya: I’d retain ᴺQ. tyos “cough” for purposes of Neo-Quenya from a Neo-Root ᴺ√TYOS.

ᴱQ. tyosta- v. “to cough”
A verb appearing as ᴱQ. tyosto- “to cough” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s derived from the early root ᴱ√TYOSO of the same meaning (QL/50).

Neo-Quenya: I’d adapt this word as ᴺQ. tyosta- “to cough” for purposes of Neo-Quenya, based on a Neo-Root ᴺ√TYOS.

4.54 to Sneeze

ᴱQ. hont n. “sneeze”
A noun appearing as ᴱQ. hont (honty-) “sneeze” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s derived from the early root ᴱ√HOTYO of the same meaning (QL/50).

Neo-Quenya: I’d retain this word as ᴺQ. hont “sneeze” for purposes of Neo-Quenya, based on a Neo-Root ᴺ√HOT, but without the more elaborate stem form. Note that -nt remained a valid (but rare) final consonant cluster in Tolkien’s later conception of Quenya.

ᴱQ. hontosse n. “loud sneeze”
A noun appearing as ᴱQ. hontosse “a loud sneeze” in the Qenya Lexicon, an elaboration of ᴱQ. hont “sneeze” (QL/50).

Neo-Quenya: I’d retain this word as ᴺQ. hontossë “loud sneeze” for purposes of Neo-Quenya based on ᴺQ. hont “sneeze”.

ᴱQ. hotyo- n. “to sneeze”
A verb appearing as ᴱQ. hotin “I sneeze” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s with past tense hontye, derived from the early root ᴱ√HOTYO “sneeze” (QL/50); the verb stem is probably also hotyo-.

Neo-Quenya: I’d adapt this word as ᴺQ. hotya- “to sneeze” for purposes of Neo-Quenya, based on a Neo-Root ᴺ√HOT, but redefined as a ya-formative verb and hence with past tense *hotonye.

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