4.81 Strong, Mighty, Powerful
- Q. astalda adj. “strong, *valiant”
- An adjective glossed “strong” and derived from the root √STAL in a page of notes having to do with “large & small” words, probably from the late 1960s (PE17/115). This page was rejected, but Tolkien used Astaldo “Valiant” as a sobriquet of Tulkas in later versions of The Silmarillion. Such such, I would assume [ᴺQ.] astalda is valid for purposes of Neo-Quenya, but I would use it with the meaning “*valiant” rather than “strong”.
- Q. melehta adj. “mighty”
- An adjective for “mighty” derived from the root √MBELEK in a page of notes having to do with “large & small” words, probably from the late 1960s (PE17/115), apparently from the primitive form *✶mbelektā (with [kt] > [ht]). A variant form meletya appears with the 2nd-plural possessive suffix -lda¹ as Meletyalda “your mighty” in the Quendi and Eldar essay of 1959-60 (WJ/369), likely from the primitive form *✶mbelekya (with [kj] > [tj]). This variant form has a more typical primitive adjective suffix ✶-ya, but is inconsistent with the attested Sindarin cognate S. belaith, so I’d stick with melehta for purposes of Neo-Quenya.
- Q. melehtë n. “might, power (inherent)”
- The noun Q. melehte “might, power (inherent)” appeared on a rejected page of notes having to do with “large & small” words (probably from the late 1960s), where it was derived from the root √MELEK (PE17/115). The adjective form Q. melehta “mighty” appeared in another (unrejected) page of these same notes, where it was derived instead from √MBELEK. I think it likely the rejection has more to do with changes in the root than the words, so I’d retain ᴺQ. melehtë “might, power” for purposes of Neo-Quenya.
- ᴹQ. poldore n. “[ᴱQ.] physical strength; ⚠️might”
- A word in The Etymologies of the 1930s that was a noun form of ᴹQ. polda “strong, burly” under the root ᴹ√POL(OD) “physically strong” (Ety/POL), so probably meaning something like “*physical strength”. There is a similar form ᴱQ. poldor in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s glossed “physical strength” under the early root ᴱ√POLO (QL/75); this 1910s word was glossed “might” in the contemporaneous Poetic and Mythological Words of Eldarissa. For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I’d use this word primarily for “physical strength”.
- ᴹQ. poldórea adj. “strong, strong-bodied, [ᴱQ.] muscular, ⚠️powerful”
- A word appearing in The Etymologies of the 1930s as an unglossed adjective form of ᴹQ. poldore under the root ᴹ√POL(OD) “physically strong” (Ety/POL). In the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s Tolkien translated ᴱQ. poldōrea as “muscular” under the early root ᴱ√POLO “have strength” (QL/75) and in Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s it was translated as “mighty” (PE16/137). In the Quenya Verbal System (QVS) of 1948 Tolkien used this word in two phrases: ᴹQ. mólome mára poldóreain “hard work (is) good for the strong-bodied” and ᴹQ. ha mólome a·ndake poldórear “it is hard work to kill the strong” (PE22/123 note #130). The section where these two phrases appeared was rejected, but this rejection had to do with a change in the verb “to be” and not this adjective for “strong”.
The most notable use of this adjective was as a sobriquet for Tulkas dating all the way back to the 1910s, which Tolkien translated as “Strong One” (SM/79) or “Valiant” (LR/206). This sobriquet survived until Silmarillion drafts of the 1950s, where Tolkien revised it to Astaldo “Valiant” (MR/149). Despite this change, I think poldórea might be retained for “strong of body, muscular”, since √POL continued to appear in Tolkien’s writings in connection to physical ability.
- Q. taura adj. “(very) mighty, masterful; vast, of unmeasured might or size”
- A word in a list of “large & small” roots the late 1960s glossed “mighty, masterful” along with an equivalent word túrëa, both derived from √TUR “strong, mighty, in power” (PE17/115). In notes associated with the Quendi and Eldar essay of 1959-60, Tolkien glossed it as “very mighty, vast, of unmeasured might or size” as an example of ancient a-fortification of the root √TUR (VT39/10). ᴹQ. taura “mighty” appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s derived from primitive ᴹ✶taurā under the root ᴹ√TUR “power, control, mastery, victory” (Ety/TUR).
Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I would assume this word applies to general might and majesty, applicable to people but also to inanimate things, as in i taura ëaron “the mighty ocean = the great and powerful ocean”. I would use túrëa more specifically for someone who is politically powerful, having mastery or influence over others.
- ᴹQ. tuo n. “muscle, sinew; vigour, physical strength”
- A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “muscle, sinew; vigour, physical strength” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tūgu under the root ᴹ√TUG (Ety/TUG). This root also had an adjective ᴹQ. tunga “taut, tight; resonant (of strings)”, clearly referring to the use of sinew in making stringed instruments. Thus I think tuo likely refers mainly to “muscle, sinew”, and only metaphorically to “vigour, physical strength”, as in: tana Elda same tuo “that Elf has muscle = has physical strength”.
- Q. turca adj. “strong, powerful (in body)”
- An adjective for “strong, powerful (in body)” appearing as the initial element in the name Turkafinwë, father name of Celegorm (PM/352). ᴱQ. turka also appeared in Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s as a variant of ᴱQ. tulka “strong”.
- ᴱQ. turwa adj. “powerful [in a general sense]”
- An adjective for “powerful” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s under the early root ᴱ√TURU “am strong” (QL/96).
Neo-Quenya: Since √TUR remains connected to power in Tolkien’s later writings, I’d retain this word for purposes of Neo-Quenya, but I’d use it for general or abstract forms of potency, as opposed to being physically powerful (turca or [ᴹQ.] poldórea) or politically powerful (túrëa). For example: turwa nus “a powerful smell” or turwa vangwe “a powerful storm”.
- Q. turya- v. “[ᴹQ.] to strengthen”
- A verb for “strengthen” in the Quenya Verbal System (QVS) from 1948, the basis for the noun [ᴹQ.] turyande “strengthening” (PE22/110). It also appears in notes from 1957 within the (loosely translated) phrase Eldaron indor turyaner “the hearts of the Eldar were comforted / or obeyed” (NM/239), perhaps more literally “*the hearts of the Eldar [were] strengthened”. If so, it seems this verb can be used intransitively for “to become strengthened, strengthen oneself”, but I think it can also be used transitively as in nár turya tinco “fire strengthens metal”. It also seems this verb can be used for metaphorical as well as physical strength.
- Q. turyande n. “fortification, [ᴹQ.] strengthening”
- A noun for “fortification, strengthening” in the Quenya Verbal System (QVS) from 1948, a combination of turya- “strengthen” and the general action verbal suffix -nde (PE22/110). This word also appeared with the gloss “fortification” in both the first and second versions of the Tengwesta Qenderinwa from the 1930s (TQ1: PE18/45) and around 1950 (TQ2: PE18/95) respectively. In TQ1 and TQ2 it referred to the strengthening of sound (more specifically a-fortification), so I think this noun can refer to both physical and metaphorical strengthening.
- ᴹQ. turwa adj. “fortified, *strengthened”
- An adjective for “fortified” in the first version of the Tengwesta Qenderinwa from the 1930s (TQ1: PE18/46). It appears to be the perfective adjective of the verb turya- “to strengthen”.
- ᴹQ. veasse n. “vigour”
- A word for “vigour” in The Etymologies of the 1930s, a noun form of vea “adult, manly, vigorous” under the root ᴹ√WEG “(manly) vigour” (Ety/WEG). In later writings, √WEG was glossed “live, be active”, and so derivatives having to do with “vigour” remain plausible (PE17/189).
4.82 Weak, Infirm
- Q. limpa adj. “frail, slender and drooping”
- An adjective glossed “frail, slender and drooping” in notes probably from around 1959 based on the unstrengthened form of the root √(N)DIP “drooping” (PE17/168). For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I would assume this word applies to things that are physically frail, originally in the sense of such things being unable to support themselves upright due to thinness.
- Q. úmaitë adj. “clumsy(-handed), unskilled”
- An adjective in Quenya Notes (QN) from 1957 glossed “clumsy(-handed), unskilled”, a negated form of maitë “handy, skillful” (PE17/162).