New Theme! What do you think?

Study, speak, and hang out with fellow Elvish students!

Select Elvish Words 4.83-4.84: Health, Sickness (Quenya)

4.83 Well; Health

Q. málë n. “good health”
A noun for “good health” in Definitive Linguistic Notes (DLN) from 1959, based on the root √MAGA “to thrive, be in a good state” (PE17/162).

4.84 Sick; Sickness

ᴹQ. kaila adj. “lying in bed, *abed, ⚠️bedridden; sickness”
A word in The Etymologies of the 1930s given as the equivalent of N. cael “lying in bed, bedridden, sickness” derived from the root ᴹ√KAY “lie down” (Ety/KAY; EtyAC/KAL). Helge Fauskanger suggested the glosses apply only to the Noldorin word, and that the Quenya word is likely to be simply an adjective (QQ/caila). I agree, and think kaila simply means something like “lying in bed, *abed”, whereas ᴹQ. kaimasse is the noun for “lying in bed, sickness” and ᴹQ. kaimassea is the adjective for “bedridden, sick”.
ᴹQ. kaimasse n. “lying in bed, sickness”
A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s apparently referring to “sickness” from the original sense of “lying in bed”, an abstract or locative form of ᴹQ. kaima “bed” (Ety/KAY).
ᴹQ. kaimassea adj. “bedridden, sick”
An adjective in The Etymologies of the 1930s apparently meaning “bedridden, sick”, an adjective form of ᴹQ. kaimasse “lying in bed, sickness” (Ety/KAY).
Q. engwa adj. “sickly”
An adjective for “sickly” in The Etymologies of the 1930s from the root ᴹ√GENG-WA “sick” (Ety/GENG-WĀ), used in its noun plural form ᴹQ. Engwar “The Sickly” as a name for Men (LR/245). Christopher Tolkien kept Engwar in the published version of The Silmarillion (S/103).
ᴹQ. laiwa adj. “sickly, sick, ill”
An adjective appearing as ᴹQ. laiwa “sickly, sick, ill” in The Etymologies of the 1930s derived from primitive ᴹ✶slaiwā under the root ᴹ√SLIW “sickly” (Ety/SLIW). The ancient initial sl became voiceless hl, which was then voiced to l as was generally the case in The Etymologies.

Neo-Quenya: In Tolkien’s later writing, he usually retained hl- in spelling if not pronunciation; see the entry on how initial voiceless nasals and liquids were voiced for discussion. As such, most Neo-Quenya writers adapt this word as ᴺQ. hlaiwa.

Conceptual Development: The Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s had the word ᴱQ. leuke (leuki-) “sick, ill; pallid, wan” under the similar but earlier root ᴱ√LEẆE (QL/53).

ᴹQ. líve n. “sickness, *disease”
A noun appearing as ᴹQ. líve “sickness” in The Etymologies of the 1930s derived from primitive ᴹ✶slīwē under the root ᴹ√SLIW “sickly” (Ety/SLIW). The ancient initial sl became voiceless hl, which was then voiced to l as was generally the case in The Etymologies. The root had a deleted variant ᴹ√LIW “be sickly, ill”, where líve appeared with the gloss “disease” (EtyAC/LIW).

Neo-Quenya: In Tolkien’s later writing, he usually retained hl- in spelling if not pronunciation; see the entry on how initial voiceless nasals and liquids were voiced for discussion. As such, most Neo-Quenya writers adapt this word as ᴺQ. hlívë. Given the gloss “disease” for its deleted form, I would further assume hlívë specifically refers to sickness by disease.

Conceptual Development: The Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s had the word ᴱQ. leume “sickness” under the similar but earlier root ᴱ√LEẆE (QL/53).

Q. nimpa adj. “drooping, ailing”
An adjective glossed “drooping, ailing” in notes probably from around 1959 based on the strengthened form of the root √(N)DIP “drooping” (PE17/168). For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I would assume this word applies to those who currently feel weak or ill but may or may not be actually sick.
ᴹQ. qáme n. “sickness, [ᴱQ.] nausea”
A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “sickness” under the root ᴹ√KWAM (Ety/KWAM). ᴱQ. qáme also appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s with the glosses “sickness, nausea” under the early root ᴱ√QAMA (QL/76).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I would assume this noun applies mainly to stomach illnesses and nausea, as opposed to general sickness which would be [ᴺQ.] hlívë.

ᴱQ. qámea n. “sick, *nauseous”
A word appearing as qāmea “sick” in Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, an adjective form of ᴱQ. qáme “sickness, nausea” (QL/76).

Neo-Quenya: Since ᴹQ. qáme “sickness” appears in Tolkien’s later writings (Ety/KWAM), I would retain ᴺQ. quámëa for purposes of Neo-Quenya, but given the meaning of its noun form I would assume its primary meaning is “*nauseous”, as opposed to generally sick which would be [ᴺQ.] hlaiwa.

ᴱQ. qolo- v. “to ail, *be sick”
A verb appearing as ᴱQ. qolo- “to ail” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s under the early root ᴱ√QOLO (QL/78).

Neo-Quenya: I’d retain this verb as ᴺQ. quol- “to ail, *be sick”, but would assume it applies to any kind of physical ailment (including injury), not just disease. Not all Neo-Quenya writers accept quo- as a valid combination; see the entry on how [wo] became [o] for further discussion.

ᴱQ. qolimo n. “invalid”
A noun appearing as ᴱQ. qolimo “invalid”, apparently an agental form of ᴱQ. qolo- “to ail”, hence = “*one who ails” (QL/78).

Neo-Quenya: I’d retain ᴺQ. quolimo “invalid” for purposes of Neo-Quenya. Not all Neo-Quenya writers accept quo- as a valid combination; see the entry on how [wo] became [o] for further discussion.

ᴱQ. qolina adj. “ill, sickly, ailing”
The Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s had several similar adjectives under the early root ᴱ√QOLO: ᴱQ. qolda or qolina “ill” and ᴱQ. qolima “sickly, ailing” (QL/78).

Neo-Quenya: I’d adopt ᴺQ. quolina for all these meanings: “ill, sickly, ailing”. I would further assume it applies to any kind of physical ailment, including injury. For someone sick specifically by disease I would use [ᴺQ.] hlaiwa. Not all Neo-Quenya writers accept quo- as a valid combination; see the entry on how [wo] became [o] for further discussion.

ᴱQ. qolu n. “disease”
A noun appearing as ᴱQ. qolu “disease” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s derived from the early root ᴱ√QOLO (QL/78). This word was also mentioned in the contemporaneous Poetic and Mythological Words of Eldarissa (PME/78).

Neo-Quenya: I’d retain ᴺQ. quolu “disease” for purposes of Neo-Quenya, and would assume it applies to disease in general, as opposed to disease or sickness within a body which would be [ᴺQ.] hlívë. Not all Neo-Quenya writers accept quo- as a valid combination; see the entry on how [wo] became [o] for further discussion.

ᴱQ. qolúva adj. “pestilent, pestilential”
A word appearing as ᴱQ. qolūva “pestilent, pestilential” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, an adjectival form of ᴱQ. qolu “disease” (QL/78).

Neo-Quenya: I’d retain ᴺQ. quolúva for purposes of Neo-Quenya in references to things and environments apt to cause disease. Not all Neo-Quenya writers accept quo- as a valid combination; see the entry on how [wo] became [o] for further discussion.

ᴱQ. qolúvie n. “pestilence”
A word appearing as ᴱQ. qolúvie “pestilence” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, a noun form of ᴱQ. qolūva “pestilent, pestilential” (QL/78).

Neo-Quenya: I’d retain ᴺQ. quolúvië “pestilence” for purposes of Neo-Quenya. Not all Neo-Quenya writers accept quo- as a valid combination; see the entry on how [wo] became [o] for further discussion.

Speak, Friend!