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Select Elvish Words 5.11: to Eat

5.11 to Eat

ᴱQ. lávear n. “glutton”
A noun for “glutton” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s derived from the early root ᴱ√LAVA “lick”, with a stem form of láveard- (QL/52).

Neo-Quenya: I think this word can be salvaged for purposes of Neo-Quenya as an abnormal agental formation from the later version of the root: √LAB “lick”. If the final r is from the agental suffix ✶-ro however, it probably no longer has a specialized stem form.

Q. mammata- v. “to gorge (oneself), gobble up, [ᴹQ.] devour; [Q.] (lit.) to go on eating”
A verb for “gobble up, gorge, (lit.) go on eating” based on a frequentative form of √MAT “eat”. It appeared in notes from the late 1940s (PE22/95) and early 1950s (PE22/130).

Conceptual Development: ᴱQ. malu- “devour” from the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s was similar in sense, though different in origin since it was based on the early root ᴱ√MALA¹ “crush, squeeze, pulp” (QL/58).

Q. mat- v. “to eat”
The verb for “to eat” derived from the root √MAT of the same meaning (VT39/7).

Conceptual Development: This verb and root are quite well established, dating all the way back to ᴱQ. mat- and ᴱ√MATA of the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s (QL/59) and appearing as ᴹQ. mat- and ᴹ√MAT in the The Etymologies of the 1930s (Ety/MAT), as well as numerous other places albeit with occasional variants like mata- (PE12/26). This verb was one Tolkien often used in examples of verb conjugations and as such its inflected forms changed considerably over time, but that is more a topic of the evolution of the Quenya verb system itself.

Q. mátima adj. “edible”
An adjective “edible” = “able to be eaten”, a combination of Q. mat- “eat” with the suffix -ima “able” which induces lengthening of the base vowel: á (PE17/68; PE22/155).

Conceptual Development: The suffix -ima “able” dates all the way back to the Early Qenya of the 1910s, but the way it interacted with the verb evolved over time. In the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s the form was ᴱQ. matsima (QL/59) with the usual Early Qenya sound change of ti to tsi (PE12/23). In the Quenya Verbal System of 1948 it was ᴹQ. mattima with consonant-doubling instead of vowel lengthening (PE22/111). In Common Eldarin: Verb Structure of the early 1950s it was Q. mastima with a variant suffix -tima and the usual sound change whereby t+t became st (PE22/137). The form mátima appeared in various notes from the 1960s (PE17/68; PE22/155).

Q. -matya suf. “-eating”
An adjective suffix for “eating” used only in compounds based on an archaic active participle suffix -ya (PE17/68).

Conceptual Development: A similar suffix ᴱQ. -matwa appeared in various words in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s (QL/59-61).

ᴱQ. tyuku- v. “to chew”
A verb appearing as ᴱQ. tyuku- “to chew” with variant tyukta- in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s derived from the early root ᴱ√TYUKU of the same meaning (QL/50).

Neo-Quenya: I’d retain this verb as ᴺQ. tyuc- “chew” for purposes of Neo-Quenya, derived from the Neo-Root ᴺ√TYUK.

ᴱQ. tyúka n. “cud”
A noun appearing as ᴱQ. tyus (tyuks-) “cud” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s derived from the early root ᴱ√TYUKU “chew” (QL/50). It became ᴱQ. tyúka “cud” in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s as a cognate of ᴱN. cig from primitive ᴱ✶kiwka (PE13/140).

Neo-Quenya: The form tyúka veers too close to later ᴹQ. tiuko “thigh” (Ety/TIW), so I’d instead restore the 1910s form as ᴺQ. tyuxë [tyukse] “cud” derived from the Neo-Root ᴺ√TYUK.

ᴱN. cig n. “cud”
A noun appearing as ᴱN. cig “cud” in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s derived from primitive ᴱ✶kiwka and with cognate ᴱQ. tyúka (PE13/140).

Neo-Sindarin: For purposes of Neo-Quenya I use ᴺQ. tyuxë [tyukse] “cud” based on earlier ᴱQ. tyus (tyuks-) “cud” from Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s (QL/50) to avoid conflict with later ᴹQ. tiuko “thigh” (Ety/TIW). Therefore I’d use ᴺS. toch “cud” as its equivalent for purposes of Neo-Sindarin.

S. mad- v. “to eat”
The verb for “to eat” derived from the root √MAT of the same meaning (PE17/131; Ety/MAT). In Tolkien’s later writing it appears only in inflected forms, but the verb itself is well established, dating back all the way to G. mad- in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/56). This verb was one Tolkien often used in examples of verb conjugations and as such its inflected forms changed considerably over time, but that is more a topic of the evolution of the Sindarin verb system.
ᴱN. madren adj. “edible”
An adjective appearing as ᴱN. madren “edible” in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s based on the verb ᴱN. mad- “eat” (PE13/163, 165). It seems this was a pure adjective, as opposed to indeclinable ᴱN. medid “edible” which was based on the inflected verb form medi- (PE13/163, 165). In the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s the adjective was instead G. madrin “edible, fit for food, wholesome” with variant form madriol (GL/56).

Neo-Sindarin: For purposes of Neo-Sindarin I would update this to ᴺS. madui “edible” using the later adjective suffix -ui, as in únodui “uncountable” (PE17/144).

S. madweg adj. “gluttonous”
An adjective for “gluttonous” in notes from 1959, a combination of S. mad- “eat” and the suffix S. -weg “active in doing” (PE17/144).
G. mal- v. “to chew”
A verb appearing as G. mal- “to chew” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/56), perhaps based on the early root ᴱ√MALA¹ “crush” (QL/58).

Neo-Sindarin: The root became ᴹ√MBAL in The Etymologies of the 1930s (Ety/MBAL), whose Sindarin derivatives would start with bal- conflicting with later forms like S. bal- “*to have [divine] power” (PE17/131). For purposes of Neo-Sindarin I would use ᴺS. nadh- “to chew, gnaw” from ᴹ√NYAD “gnaw” (Ety/NYAD).

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