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Select Elvish Words 9.31-9.32: to Rub, Stretch

9.31 to Rub

Q. †psar- v. “to rub, [ᴹQ.] fret”

A verb for “rub” mentioned in the second version of Tengwesta Qenderinwa (TQ2) from around 1950 (PE18/94). It is also mentioned in the Quenya Verbal System of 1948 as the basis for the frequentative verb ᴹQ. sapsarra- “keep on rubbing, fray away” (PE22/113) and in the proverbial phrase ᴹQ. ksaráre psare súle “longing frets the spirit” (PE22/119). The rare initial combination ps- survived up until Classical Quenya, and probably retained this form in tengwar spelling, but was likely pronounced upsar- in Tarquesta (PE19/36, 79).

Conceptual Development: The Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s had ᴱQ. ’warin “rubs” under the early root {ᴱ√WAṘA >>} ᴱ√GWAṘA of the same meaning (QL/103).

ᴹQ. sapsarra- v. “to keep on rubbing, fray away”

A frequentative form of ᴹQ. psar- “rub” in the Quenya Verbal System from 1948 (PE22/113).

G. gratha- v. “to rub, scratch, fray”

A verb appearing as G. gratha- “rub, scratch, fray” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/42), probably based on the early root ᴱ√GWAṘA “rub” (QL/103).

Neo-Sindarin: Since it conflicts with no later verbs, I retain ᴺS. gratha- “to rub, scratch, fray” for purposes of Neo-Sindarin. I assume it is a late invention unrelated to RATH “climb”, comparable to Q. psar- “rub” which was another late innovation in the Quenya language branch.

9.32 to Stretch

ᴱQ. rakta- v. “to stretch out, reach”

A verb appearing as ᴱQ. rakta- “stretch out, reach (intr.)” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s under the early root ᴱ√RAHA “stretch forward” (QL/78).

Neo-Quenya: A later iteration of this root is ᴹ√RAK “stretch out, reach” from The Etymologies of the 1930s, so I think this verb can be retained as ᴺQ. rahta- “to stretch out, reach”, slightly modified to fit later Quenya phonology. Helge Fauskanger used such a modified verb in his Neo-Quenya New Testament (NQNT).

Q. tailë n. “lengthening, [ᴹQ.] extension”

A noun for “lengthening, extension” from The Etymologies of the 1930s under from the root ᴹ√TAY “extend, make long(er)” (Ety/TAY), also appearing as an element in ómatailë “vowel lengthening” from both versions of Tengwesta Qenderinwa from the 1930s (TQ1: PE18/45) and around 1950 (TQ2: PE18/95).

Q. taima n. “extension”

An element meaning “extension” in the term ómataima “vocalic extension” from both versions of Tengwesta Qenderinwa from the 1930s (TQ1: PE18/34) and around 1950 (TQ2: PE18/86), as well as other linguistic notes from the 1960s (VT42/24-25). Sometimes Tolkien used an alternate form ómataina for “vocalic extension” (PE22/137; WJ/371, 417), but I think the final element in this variation is a nominalized form of the adjective taina “stretched, elongated”. The noun taima seems to be a combination of √TAY “stretch” with the instrumentation suffix ✶-mā, so I would use this noun with the sense “extension = an extended thing”, as opposed to Q. tailë for the process of extension.

Q. taina adj. “stretched, elongated; [ᴹQ.] lengthened, extended, prolonged”

A verb for “to prolong” in The Etymologies of the 1930s under the root ᴹ√TAY “extend, make long(er)” (Ety/TAY). For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I would also used it with the sense “*lengthen”.

N. pelia- v. “to spread”

A verb appearing in its (Noldorin) infinitive form pelio “spread” in The Etymologies of the 1930s under the root ᴹ√PAL “wide (open)” (Ety/PAL).

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