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Select Elvish Words 10.24-10.25: to Drop; to Throw

10.24 to Drop

Q. limba n. “drop”

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “a drop”, derived from the root ᴹ√LIB¹ “drip” (Ety/LIB¹).

Conceptual Development: This noun may be a later iteration of ᴱQ. litl or lipte “a tiny drop” from the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, a derivative of the root ᴱ√LIPI (QL/54).

ᴱQ. lipte- v. “to drip”

A verb appearing as ᴱQ. lipte- “to drip” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s under the early root ᴱ√LIPI (QL/54).

Neo-Quenya: The verb form lipte- is abnormal, so I would adapt this as ᴺQ. lipta- “to drip” for purposes of Neo-Quenya, reconceived of as a derivative of the later root ᴹ√LIB “drip”.

G. dod- v. “to drop, ⚠️fall down”

A verb appearing as G. dod- “fall down, drop” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/30), clearly based on the early root ᴱ√ÐOTO “drop, fall” (QL/86).

Neo-Sindarin: There is a later verb danna- “fall”, but no later verb for “drop”, so I would retain ᴺS. dod- “to drop” for purposes of Neo-Sindarin, based on a Neo-Root ᴺ√DOT of the same meaning.

ᴱN. limig v. “[small] drop, ⚠️drop of water”

A noun appearing as ᴱN. limig “drop of water” in the Early Noldorin Grammar of the 1920s, given as a singular form of the collective word ᴱN. lim “water” (PE13/123-124).

Conceptual Development: In the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s Tolkien gave the noun G. glib “drop of water” as a variation of G. lib “a drop, gout” (GL/39, 54). Tolkien probably used the gloss “gout” in its more archaic sense “drop (of something, such as blood)” rather than referring to the disease. Both these Gnomish words were clearly derivatives of the early root ᴱ√LIPI which had derivatives like ᴱQ. lipte “a tiny drop” (QL/54).

Neo-Sindarin: I think the word ᴺS. limig can be salvaged as a neologism for “drop”, based on the 1930s root ᴹ√LIB¹ “drip” and its Quenya derivative ᴹQ. limba “drop” (Ety/LIB¹). In this new formulation, I would assume primitive *limbiki was originally a diminutive form, that eventually shifted to become the normal form of the word. I think this is preferable over a neologism ᴺS. *lem that is a direct cognate of ᴹQ. limba.

10.25 to Throw

ᴹQ. hat- v. “[ᴱQ.] to hurl, fling, *throw”

The Qenya Lexicon and Poetic and Mythological Words of Eldarissa of the 1910s had a verb ᴱQ. hata- based on the early root ᴱ√HATA “hurl, fling” (QL/39; PME/39). The verb was variously glossed “hurl” [hata-] and “I fling” [hatin]. In this period, it had a Gnomish cognate G. hada- “throw at, aim at” (GL/48). The root reappeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s as ᴹ√KHAT “hurl”, but in that document the root had only Noldorin derivatives like N. hedi [had-] “hurl” and N. hador or hadron “thrower” (Ety/KHAT).

ᴹ√KHAT also appeared on a rejected page of roots in Quenya Verbal System (QVS) of 1948 where it was glossed “hurl, cast, send through air, loose from hand but not nec[essarily] fast”, contrasted with another root ᴹ√RIP “fling, hurl, of something long like arrow, spear, shaft” (PE22/127 note #152). Thus in this document it seems ᴹ√RIP was “hurl fast” and ᴹ√KHAT “throw but not always fast”. This rejected page had what appears to be Quenya verb forms corresponding to both roots: past form ᴹQ. rimpe “hurled” and [?stem form] ᴹQ. hat. The latter was followed by a hard-to-read gloss “through[?] down[?]”.

Later still, Tolkien had the noun Q. hatal “spear” in notes from the late 1960s (VT49/14), indicating the ongoing validity of the root √KHAT.

Neo-Quenya: Based on Q. hatal “spear”, I think ᴹ√RIP “hurl [fast] of an arrow/spear/shaft” was a transient idea. As such, I would use ᴺQ. hat- for “hurl, fling, *throw”. Note that this conflicts with ᴹQ. hat- “break asunder” from The Etymologies (Ety/SKAT), but I assume this verb form is archaic and replaced by ᴹQ. terhat- or ᴹQ. askat- in modern Quenya; see the entry for ᴹQ. hat-¹ for further discussion.

N. had- v. “to hurl, *fling; [G.] throw, ⚠️aim at”

A verb in The Etymologies of the 1930s appearing in its [Noldorin] infinitive form hedi “hurl” under the root ᴹ√KHAT of similar meaning, with past forms hant and hennin [“I hurled”] (Ety/KHAT).

Conceptual Development: There was the verb G. hada “throw at, [with dative?] aim at” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s with past form {hanti- >>} hanthi (GL/48), clearly based on the early root ᴱ√HATA “hurl, fling” (QL/39). Before the gloss “aim at” Tolkien wrote “c. dat.”, which I think means “with dative”, but it is not clear how this construction would work. The Gnomish Lexicon also had a similar verb G. {hanta- >>} hantha- “fling, hurl, aim at; direct” based on hant¹ “hither” (GL/48).

Neo-Sindarin: For purposes of Neo-Sindarin, I would just use had- with the meanings “to hurl, fling, throw”, and I would ignore the 1910s gloss “aim at”, using ᴺS. meitha- instead for “aim”.

N. hador v. “thrower (of spears and darts)”

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “thrower (of spears or darts)”, an agental form of the root ᴹ√KHAT “hurl” (Ety/KHAT), also used as the name of the progenitor of the House of Hador. This noun had a (masculine?) variant N. hadron.

G. hant² v. “throw, cast; turn or move in games”

A noun in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s glossed “a throw, a cast”, as well as “a turn, move, go, etc. in games and so on” (GL/48), clearly based the early root ᴱ√HATA (GL/48).

Neo-Sindarin: Since the similar root ᴹ√KHAT “hurl” survived in Tolkien’s later writings, I would retain the noun ᴺS. hant “throw, cast” for purposes of Neo-Sindarin, with the extended meaning “turn or move in games”.

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