5.17 to Mix, Blend
- Q. ostimë n. “blend”
- A word for a “blend” appearing in notes associated with the Quendi and Eldar essay from 1959-60, more specifically “the running together of two elements” (VT39/9). It appeared only in its plural form ostimi “blends”. In the context where it appeared, it referred to the blending of sounds in diphthongs, but it probably can refer to other blends and mixes as well.
5.21 to Cook
- ᴱQ. maksa- v. “to cook”
- A verb appearing as ᴱQ. maksa- “cook” in the Qenya Lexicon under the early root ᴱ√M(B)ASA “cook, bake” (QL/59). A nearby alternate form mark- was added and then deleted.
Neo-Quenya: The root √MBAS continued to appear in Tolkien’s later writings, so I would retain ᴺQ. maxa- “cook” for purposes of Neo-Quenya from primitive *mbaskā-. The verbal suffix -kā is very unusual, and maxa- might instead be derived from an ancient noun or adjective.
- ᴱQ. maksar n. “cook”
- A word appearing as ᴱQ. maksar “cook” in the Qenya Lexicon based on maksa- “to cook” (QL/59).
- G. brant adj. “cooked, done; overdone”
- An adjective appearing as G. brant¹ “cooked, done” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s, with the more specific connotation of “overdone”, perhaps due to the influence of the verb G. brantha- “scorch” (GL/24).
Neo-Sindarin: For purposes of Neo-Sindarin I retain the Neo-Root ᴺ√BRATH “cook” along with its related derivatives, so I would retain ᴺS. brant as well. For “cooked” without the connotation of “overdone”, I would use the passive participle brannen of the verb ᴺS. brath- “to cook”.
- G. brath- v. “to cook”
- A verb appearing as G. brath- “cook (tr.)” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/24), marked with a “*” indicating it was root as well.
5.24 to Bake
- ᴹQ. masta- n. “to bake”
- A verb in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “bake” derived from the root ᴹ√MBAS of similar meaning (Ety/MBAS; PE17/51).
Conceptual Development: The Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s instead had ᴱQ. mas- “bake, cook” from the early root ᴱ√M(B)ASA “cook, bake” (QL/59). In that 1910s document it coexisted with ᴱQ. toro- “bake” under the early root ᴱ√TORO (QL/94), but it seems this other root was abandoned. Early Qenya Word-lists had only ᴱQ. mas- with a single gloss “bake” (QL/94). The verb became masta- “bake” in The Etymologies of the 1930s, as noted above.
- G. bas- v. “to bake”
- A verb appearing as G. bas- “bake” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/22), based on the early root ᴱ√M(B)ASA “cook, bake” (QL/59).
Neo-Sindarin: For purposes of Neo-Sindarin I would update this verb to ᴺS. basta- “to bake” for better compatibility with the later Quenya verb [ᴹQ.] masta-. I first saw this neologism suggested by Fiona Jallings (FJNS/339).