9.27 to Split
- ᴹQ. hyar- v. “to cleave; [ᴱQ.] to plough”
A verb appearing as hyarin “I cleave” in The Etymologies of the 1930s as a derivative of from the root ᴹ√SYAD “shear through, cleave” (Ety/SYAD). In the Outline of Phonetic Development (OP1) from around this time, Tolkien had an (unglossed) verbal stem hyar- also derived from ᴹ√SYAD, but in that document the root seems to mean “compact, compress”. However in the Quenya Verbal System from 1948, hyare again meant “cleave” (PE22/102). See the entry on √SYAD for further vacillations on the meaning of the root.
Conceptual Development: The Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s had ᴱQ. hyanda- as the cognate of G. †hanna- “mow, cleave” (GL/48) likely based on the early root ᴱ√HYAŘA “plough through” [HYAÐA] (QL/41). Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s had ᴱQ. hyar- “plough”, probably form the same root (PE16/144).
Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I would keep the sense “cleave” for the basic verb despite Tolkien’s vacillations on the meaning of the root. I think it could also retain its 1920s meaning “plough” = “*cleave the earth”.
- ᴹQ. hyatse n. “cleft, gash”
- ᴹQ. kirisse n. “slash, gash”
A noun for a “slash, gash” in The Etymologies of the 1930s under the root ᴹ√KIRIS “cut” (Ety/KIRIS).
Conceptual Development: The same form kirisse appeared under the root ᴹ√KIR with the gloss “cleft, (?crevasse)” [the second gloss is unclear], but this form was deleted (EtyAC/KIR). The Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s had a couple similar forms ᴱQ. kiris (kirist-) “cleft, crack” and ᴱQ. kirkis of the same meaning, both under the early root ᴱ√KIŘI [KIÐI] and ᴱ√KISI, along with blended ᴱ√KIRISI, all of these roots having the sense “cut, split” (QL/47).
- ᴱQ. sahta- v. “to split”
Neo-Quenya: Since the root ᴹ√STAK “split, insert” survives in Tolkien’s later writings, I think ᴺQ. sahta- “to split” can be retained for purposes of Neo-Quenya. It does conflicted with the later verb Q. sahta- “induce” from the 1950s, but I think the two can coexist.
- ᴹQ. sanca adj. “cleft, split”
- N. hasta- v. “to hack through, *cleave”
A verb appearing in its (Noldorin) infinitive form hasto “hack through” in The Etymologies of the 1930s under the root ᴹ√SYAD “shear through, cleave”, apparently related to N. hast “axe-stroke” (Ety/SYAD). Tolkien indicated the basic verb from the root SYAD was “in N lost owing to coalescence with KHAD” (see N. hadh- “sit”), so it seems the causative or formative verb form *syad-tā̆ is the only verb that survived in the Noldorin branch. For purposes of Neo-Sindarin, I would thus use hasta- for “*cleave” as well.
Conceptual Development: The Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s had (archaic) G. †hanna- “mow, cleave” based the early root ᴱ√χ̑ṇđ [HYAŘA = HYAÐA] (GL/48), a root that was elsewhere glossed “plough through” (QL/41). Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s had ᴱN. daila- “to cleave” based on ᴱN. dail “axe-blade” derived from primitive ᴱ✶daglé (PE13/141).
- S. riss n. “cleft, [N.] ravine; ⚠️cleft, cloven, separate”
A noun for “cleft” appearing the final element of the name Imladris “Rivendell” = “Deep Dale of the Cleft” (RC/774) or “Canyon of the Cleft” (VT47/14).
Conceptual Development: This noun first appeared in as N. rhis or rhess “a ravine” derived from primitive ᴹ✶risse- under the root ᴹ√RIS (Ety/RIS²). The variant form rhess indicates some kind a-affection, perhaps because final e became a after s, though usually a double ss preserved e. In the 1940s and later Tolkien sometimes gave the name of Rivendell as Imladris(t), indicating a final element rist (TI/120; RC/774), but normally an -st does not reduce at the end of Sindarin words: compare Angrenost and Eglarest. In notes on Words, Phrases and Passages from the Lord of the Rings (WP) from the late 1950s or early 1960s, Tolkien gave the form as riss < ✶rinsa, an adjective meaning “cleft, cloven, separate” (PE17/87), but here the expected a-affection is absent.
Neo-Sindarin: For purposes of Neo-Sindarin I would assume the noun form is riss “cleft”, and the adjective form is ᴺS. ress “cleft, cloven, separate” with the usual a-affection.
- S. thanc adj. and n. “forked, [N.] cleft, split, [ᴱN.] divided, cloven, bifurcated; [ᴱN.] cleft, break, breach”
An adjective for “forked, cleft, split”, most notably an element in the name Orthanc, derived from primitive ᴹ✶stankā based on the root ᴹ√STAK “split, insert” (UT/400; Ety/STAK). This word dates all the way back to Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s, where ᴱN. thanc had glosses like “cleft, divided, split, cloven, forked, bifurcated” (PE13/154, 165; PE14/66), and in one place was also a noun glossed “cleft, break, breach” (PE13/165).