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Select Elvish Words 9.26: to Break

9.26 to Break

ᴹQ. askat- v. “to rend, break asunder”

The verb ᴹQ. terhat- “break apart” appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s, a combination of ᴹQ. ter “through” with the root ᴹ√SKAT “break asunder” (Ety/SKAT). Its past form terhante “broke” appeared in earlier versions of the Lament of Atalante from the 1930s (LR/47, 56). In versions of the poem associated with The Notion Club Papers from the 1940s, Tolkien revised terhante to askante “sunder-broke” (SD/310), and in the final version of the poem he had sakkante “rent” (SD/246). The past form sakkante is difficult to puzzle out, but askante is probably based on an augmented form askat- of the root ᴹ√SKAT.

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I would retain both terhat- “to break apart” and askat- “to rend, break asunder” as near synonyms, both more distinctive than the basic verb ᴹQ. hat- “break asunder”.

ᴹQ. hat- v. “to break asunder”

A verb in The Etymologies of the 1930s based on the root ᴹ√SKAT “break asunder” and thus presumably with the same meaning (Ety/SKAT).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I generally use [ᴺQ.] hat- to mean “throw” derived from ᴹ√KHAT, so I assume this basic verb hat- “break asunder” was archaic and replaced in ordinary speech by more distinctive verb forms ᴹQ. terhat- and ᴹQ. askat- of similar meaning.

Q. rac- v. “to break”

A verb glossed “break” associated with the Markirya poem of the 1960s (MC/223). See the entry rácina for its possible history.

Q. rácina adj. “broken”

An adjective glossed “broken” appearing in the Markirya poem of the 1960s (MC/223), apparently a passive participle of rac- “break”. A very similar plural adjective racine appeared in notes associated with Quendi and Eldar (Q&E) essay from 1959-60, an element in the term rakine tengwi for consonants without an associated vowel which Tolkien translated as “stripped or deprived signs”.

Conceptual Development: In versions of ᴱQ. Oilima Markirya from around 1930, Tolkien used ᴱQ. rusta for “broken”, though in the same poem he translated its plural form ruste as “crumbling” (MC/214). In drafts of the 1930 poem he had ᴱQ. ranka for “broken” (PE16/77), perhaps an early manifestion of rácina. Compare also G. rag- “break asunder, burst” from the 1910s (GL/64).

ᴱQ. rúvina adj. “burst”

An adjective appearing as ᴱQ. rûvina “burst” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s under the early root ᴱ√RUVU “burst asunder” (QL/81).

Neo-Quenya: I think this adjective can be salvaged as ᴺQ. rúvina “burst, ruptured” for purposes of Neo-Quenya based on a Neo-Root ᴺ√RUB. For example, Helge Fauskanger used this adjective in his Neo-Quenya New Testament (NQNT).

Q. ruxa- v. “to crumble”

A verb for “to crumble” implied by (active-participle?) ruxal’ “crumbling” in Markirya poem of the 1960s (MC/222).

Conceptual Development: In versions of ᴱQ. Oilima Markirya from around 1930, Tolkien used (plural) ᴱQ. ruste for “crumbling” (MC/214).

G. ractha n. “breach, *burst”

A noun appearing as G. ractha “breach” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s, related to the verb G. rag- “break asunder, burst” (GL/64).

Neo-Sindarin: Since I retain ᴺS. rag- “to break (asunder), burst”, I would keep this noun as well, but I would update it to ᴺS. raeth “breach, *burst” to better fit Sindarin phonology.

G. rag- v. “to break (asunder), burst”

A verb appearing as G. rag- “break asunder, burst” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/64), perhaps based on the early root ᴱ√RAKA “pile up”, though the meaning doesn’t match (QL/78).

Neo-Sindarin: The Quenya verb Q. rac- “to break” appears in Tolkien’s writings of the 1960s (MC/223), so I think this Gnomish verb can be salvaged as ᴺS. rag- “to break (asunder), burst”. For example, Fiona Jallings used rag- for “break” i her A Fan’s Guide to Neo-Sindarin (FGNS).

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