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Select Elvish Words 4.71-4.72: Beget, Bear (a child)

4.71 to Beget (of Father)

Q. onta- v. “to beget, *conceive (a child); [ᴹQ.] to create”
A verb in Tolkien’s writings glossed “beget” and derived from the root √NŌ/ONO (PE17/170; Ety/ONO). In The Etymologies of the 1930s it had a second gloss “create” (Ety/ONO).

Conceptual Development: The Early Qenya Grammar of the 1920s had the word ᴱQ. puita- “beget” (PE14/77), likely based on the early root ᴱ√PU(HU) “generate” (QL/75).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya I’d use this verb primarily with the sense “beget = *conceive (a child)”, as opposed to nosta- “to beget = give birth to”. I’d use this verb irrespective of the gender of the parent. When used of non-living or abstract things, it would have the sense “create”: ontanen vinya parma lírion “I begat [= created] a new book of songs”.

N. edonna- v. “to beget”
A verb in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “beget”, a combination of ed- “out” and a verb form of the root ᴹ√ONO “beget” (Ety/ONO).

Neo-Sindarin: For purposes of Neo-Sindarin, I’d use this verb to refer primarily to the actions of the father, and use S. onna- “*to give birth to” to refer to actions of the mother.

G. gaibra- v. “to impregnate”
A verb appearing as G. gaibra- “to impregnate” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s, a verb form of G. gaib “pregnant” (GL/37), likely related to primitive ᴱ√giu̯i (GL/39). Elsewhere in this document there was another verb G. gwectha- based on G. gweg “man”, which meant “impregnate” when used with the allative and “generate” when used with the accusative.

Neo-Sindarin: I posit the existence of Neo-Root ᴺ√GIW to serve as the basis for pregnancy words, so I would adapt the above verbs as causative ᴺS. gýda- “to impregnate, make pregnant” < *giu̯-tā-, with iu > ȳ as usual in Sindarin.

G. gwaith² n. “semen”
A noun appearing as G. gwaith⁽²⁾ “semen” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/44), likely related to G. gweg “man”. It was followed by -th- in parenthesis, perhaps indicating this was its primitive ending, as opposed gwaith⁽¹⁾ “people” which was a plural form of G. gweg “man”.

Neo-Sindarin: In Tolkien’s later writings S. gwaith usually meant “people” and S. gwê meant “living creature” rather than “man”, so I would coin a neologism ᴺS. milt “semen” as a cognate of ᴺQ. miltë, inspired by ᴱQ. milt (QL/61).

4.72 to Bear (of Mother)

Q. nóna adj. “born”
An adjective meaning “born” in the name for Men: Apanónar “After-born” (WJ/387), also appearing as an element in several other words like Minnónar “First-born” (WJ/403) and onóna “twin-born, (lit.) *together-born” (WJ/367).
ᴱQ. nosta n. “birth, ⚠️birthday”
A noun appearing as ᴱQ. nosta “birth, birthday” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s derived from the early root ᴱ√ “become, be born” (QL/66).

Neo-Quenya: As the root √ survived in Tolkien’s later writings with very similar meanings, I’d retain ᴺQ. nosta for purposes of Neo-Quenya, but I’d limit its use to “birth”, and for “birthday” I’d use ᴺQ. nostarë.

Q. nosta- n. “to beget, [ᴱQ.] give birth to; to cause; ⚠️[Q.] to be begotten”
A verb in Tolkien’s later writings glossed as either “to beget” (PE17/111) or “be begotten” (PE17/170), appearing in The Lord of the Rings as an element in the word nostar “parent” (LotR/981) and derived from the root √NŌ/ONO “beget, be born”. The word ᴱQ. nosta- dates all the way back to the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s where it was glossed “give birth to; cause” under the early root ᴱ√ “become, be born” (QL/66), but then vanished for several decades where it was either replaced by or in competition with Q. onta- “beget” (PE17/170; Ety/ONO).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I would use this verb primarily in the sense “beget” = “give birth to”, as opposed to onta- “to beget” = “*to conceive”. It might be used impersonally to have the sense “to be born”, as in nostane ni loar canquain né “[it] birthed me forty years ago = I was born forty years ago”. I would also use it to mean “cause” in the metaphorical sense of “giving birth to” an abstraction or creation.

G. nôs n. “birthday”
A word appearing as G. {noss >>} nôs “birthday” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/61), clearly based on the early root ᴱ√ “become, be born” (QL/66). In the contemporaneous Gnomish Grammar it appeared with the gloss “nature” in phrases like nôs mora “good by nature” (GG/10).

Neo-Sindarin: The usual Neo-Sindarin word for “birthday” is ᴺS. oronnad, a combination of aur “day” and [ᴺS.] onnad “birth”. The word has been floating around for long enough that I have no idea where it originated, but I first learned of it from Fiona Jallings’s Sindarin word lists.

G. nost n. “birth; blood, high birth; birthday”
A word appearing as G. {nort >>} nost in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s with three distinct meanings: “birth”, “blood = high birth” and “birthday”, though the last sense also applied to the word G. {noss >>} nôs (GL/61). It is clearly based on the early root ᴱ√ “become, be born” (QL/66). G. nosteg seems to be an adjectival variant in the phrase dana nosteg “birthday = *day of birth” (GL/61)

Neo-Sindarin: The usual Neo-Sindarin word for “birth” is ᴺS. onnad, gerund of the verb onna- “*to give birth”; I’m not sure who coined this neologism, but it has bee in use for some time.

G. nosta- v. “to be born”
A verb appearing as G. nosta- “am born” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/61), based on the early root ᴱ√ “become, be born” (QL/66).

Neo-Sindarin: Sami Paldanius coined a neologism ᴺS. enia- “to be born, be generated, result” in the VinQuettaParma Wiki (VQP) based the root √ONO “be born”, from primitive *onya-.

S. onna- v. “*to birth, give birth to”
A verb implied by the adjective (passive participle?) onnen “born” as in Abonnen “After-born” (WJ/387). It also appeared as an element in N. ed-onna “beget” in The Etymologies of the 1930s under the root ᴹ√ONO “beget”, but it is not clear whether it could function as an independent verb in this period (Ety/ONO).

Neo-Sindarin: For purposes of Neo-Sindarin, I would use this verb to refer primarily to the actions of the mother = “*to birth, give birth to”, and would reserve edonna- “to beget” for actions of the father.

S. onnen v. “born”
An adjective meaning “born” in the name for Men: Abonnen “After-born” (WJ/387). It appears to be a (reduced?) passive participle of the verb onna- “*to give birth to”.

Conceptual Development: The Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s had G. nuin “born” (GL/61) based on the early root ᴱ√ “become, be born” (QL/66).

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